What is the clinical effectiveness of AHSCT for treatment of MS?
What is the cost-effectiveness of AHSCT for treatment of MS?3. What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding AHSCT for individuals with MS?
Evidence from 2 randomized controlled trials and 4 retrospective studies with limited methodological quality suggests that treatment with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was associated with significant improvement in clinical outcomes (e.g., disease progression, clinical relapse), MRI outcomes, the composite outcome “No Evidence of Disease Activity,” and quality of life compared to disease-modifying therapies.
Treatment with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was associated with no treatment-related mortality or life-threatening complications including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. However, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was associated with expected short-term adverse events including febrile neutropenia, organ infections, sepsis, and viral reactivations; and long-term adverse events including the development of new autoimmune diseases, mainly thyroid disease.
Both identified guidelines recommend the use of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as standard of care for the treatment of highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients refractory to disease-modifying therapies and suggest that the treatment may be appropriate for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis with an active inflammatory component.