Canada consumes the second-highest number of opioids per capita, according to statistics from 2011. Over-prescribing andconsumption of opioids, paired with the addictive nature of opioids, has led to high rates of misuse, addiction, and overdose. Between January 2016 and September 2018, more than 10, 300 apparent opioid-related deaths occurred in Canada.
Treatment through opioid addiction programs can include both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. Pharmacological interventions include opioid agonist therapy, such as buprenorphine/naloxone and methadone. These therapies are taken daily to prevent the symptoms of opioid withdrawal, but they do not produce the euphoric high of other opioids. Non-pharmacological treatments include counselling, psychological therapies (such as cognitive behavioural therapy), and psychosocial support.
In Canada, limited availability of specialized treatment services and the rising demand for opioid addiction treatment programs limits accessibility. Guidance and inventories of programs are available; however, there is interest in understanding the front-line practices and approaches to providing care for individuals with opioid addiction. There is a need to gain perspective on different program practices, availability, and wait times, and to gain a better understanding of the care of patients through different care setting transitions. Some of these practices may influence policies or programs that jurisdictions choose to implement, or practices within existing programs. To support these needs, CADTH conducted an Environmental Scan to gain direct stakeholder feedback on the current context surrounding opioid addiction programs and care setting transitions.
The Environmental Scan report summarizes Canada-specific information obtained through a survey of key informants and stakeholders. A limited literature search, including international resources, was also performed.
Nineteen survey responses were received from 10 jurisdictions. No responses were received from Saskatchewan, Quebec, and Nunavut. Literature from Canada, the US, Australia, New Zealand, and many European countries was included. Grey literature — including government websites and program websites — were reviewed for additional information.
Read more about CADTH and this topic at: cadth.info/2WuWDEi