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Glossary of Terms


Breast cancer
Cancer that starts in the cells of the breast tissues, most commonly in the ducts and lobules.
Endocrine cancer
Cancer that starts in the hormone-producing glands of the body, such as the thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, pancreas, and adrenal glands, and gut.
Gastrointestinal cancer
Cancer that starts in the esophagus, stomach, bowel and rectum, liver or pancreas.
Genitourinary cancer
Cancer that affects the genitourinary tract, such as the kidney, bladder, prostate, or testis.
Gynecological cancer
Cancer that affects the reproductive system of women, including the ovaries, cervix and uterus.
Head and Neck cancer
Cancer that starts in the lip, tongue, mouth, palate, pharynx, larynx, upper trachea, or nasal pharynx.
Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue, such as bone marrow, and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream.
Lymphoma and Myeloma
Cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system, such as the lymphocytes or antibody-producing cells of the bone marrow.
Lung cancer
Cancer that starts in the cell tissues of the lung.
Cancer that starts in the melanocytes, which are pigment-producing cells found mostly in the skin.
Neurological cancer
Cancer that affects the central nervous system, which is the brain and/or spinal cord.
In simple terms, this is the study, diagnosis, and treatment of cancerous tumours. Cancer specialists are called oncologists.
Cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.
Tumour group
A clinical and/or research group, officially affiliated with a provincial cancer agency or a provincial/territorial Ministry of Health, where medical and surgical cancer specialists, health care professionals, and researchers with common interest and expertise in managing tumours related to a specific area of the body (e.g., breast or lung) work together to share information, make new discoveries, and develop consistent protocols and best practices for treating patients.

pCODR Structure

pCODR Expert Review Committee (pERC)
Assesses the clinical evidence and cost-effectiveness of cancer drugs, using this information to make recommendations to the provinces and territories to guide their cancer drug funding decisions.
Provincial Advisory Group (PAG)
Provides operational, as well as some strategic, advice to ensure recommendations are useful to cancer drug funding decision-makers. The PAG consists of appointed representatives from each of the provincial ministries of health and provincial cancer agencies participating in pCODR.
Clinical Guidance Panels
Eleven tumour-specific expert panels that ensure the review of each cancer drug draws from the most important, relevant, and current clinical information. These panels submit clinical guidance reports for use by pERC in making recommendations. Additional guidance panels may be created if pCODR reviews a drug to treat tumours that are not covered by the 11 tumour-specific panels. For example, a gynecological tumour panel may be convened, if needed.
Economic Guidance Panels
Assess the economic evidence provided by the submitter for each cancer drug submission filed with pCODR. These panels submit an economic guidance report for use by pERC in making its recommendations.


CADTH is an independent, not-for-profit organization responsible for providing Canada's health care decision-makers with objective evidence to help make informed decisions about the optimal use of drugs and medical devices in our health care system. pCODR has been part of CADTH since April 2014.
interim Joint Oncology Drug Review (iJODR)
The interim Joint Oncology Drug Review (iJODR) was the precursor oncology drug review process to pCODR. It provided evidence-based recommendations for cancer treatments from early 2007 until the transition to pCODR in 2010.
pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR)
The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) assesses new cancer drugs and makes recommendations to the provinces and territories to guide their drug funding decisions. pCODR has been part of CADTH since April 2014.
Program in Evidence-Based Care (PEBC)
Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care (PEBC) is an internationally recognized guideline development program that works to improve the quality of cancer care by helping clinicians and policy-makers apply the best scientific evidence in practice and policy decisions.