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Search Rx for Change Database


Interventions that target professionals directly, aiming to improve practice.

  • Audit and feedback (45)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    Any summary of clinical performance of health care over a specified period of time. The summary may also have included recommendations for clinical action. The information may have been obtained from medical records, computerised databases, or observations from patients.

  • Distribution of educational materials (60)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    Distribution of published or printed recommendations for clinical care, including clinical practice guidelines, audio-visual materials and electronic publications. The materials may have been delivered personally or through mass mailings.

  • Educational meetings (82)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    Healthcare providers who have participated in conferences, lectures, workshops or traineeships.

  • Educational outreach visits (34)

    Use of a trained person who met with providers in their practice settings to give information with the intent of changing the provider's practice. The information given may have included feedback on the performance of the provider(s). Can also be referred to as "academic detailing".

  • Local consensus processes (8)

    Inclusion of participating providers in discussion to ensure that they agreed that the chosen clinical problem was important and the approach to managing the problem was appropriate.

  • Local opinion leaders (6)

    Use of providers nominated by their colleagues as

  • Mass media (4)

    Varied use of communication that reached great numbers of people including television, radio, newspapers, posters, leaflets, and booklets, alone or in conjunction with other interventions; (ii) targeted at the population level.

  • Multifaceted (134)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    Any combination of two or more professional, organisational, financial, structural or regulatory interventions designed to improve prescribing practices or other health provider behaviour.

  • Patient-mediated (16)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    New clinical information (not previously available) collected directly from patients and given to the provider e.g. depression scores from an instrument.

  • Professional - other (3)

    Other professional interventions not addressed above.

  • Reminders - computer decision support systems (drug dosing) (28)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    Patient or encounter specific information, provided on a computer screen targeting the dosage of the medication.

  • Reminders - computer physician order entry (16)

    Patient or encounter specific information, provided on a computer screen aimed at automating the ordering of medication.

  • Reminders - general (71)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    Patient or encounter specific information, provided verbally, on paper or on a computer screen, which is designed or intended to prompt a health professional to recall information. This would usually be encountered through their general education; in the medical records or through interactions with peers, and so remind them to perform or avoid some action to aid individual patient care. Computer aided decision support is included.

  • Tailored interventions (2)

    Use of personal interviewing, group discussion (


Interventions that affect drug use by and prescribing for consumers.

  • Acquiring skills and competencies (31)

    Strategies focusing on the acquisition of skills relevant to medicines use. Interventions aim to assist consumers to develop a broad set of competencies around medicines use and health, such as medicines management or monitoring; or training consumers in the correct use of treatments or devices to deliver treatment.

  • Consumer system participation (1)

    Strategies to involve consumers in decision making processes on medicines prescribing and use at a system level, such as in research planning, formulary and policy decisions. Interventions can involve consumers in different roles, such as planning, research, audit and review and governance.

  • Facilitating communication and decision making (20)

    Strategies to involve consumers in decision making about medicines. Interventions include those that aim to help consumers make decisions about medicines use, such as interventions to encourage consumers to express their beliefs, values and preferences about treatments and care; and/or to optimise communication with consumers about medicines use and related issues.

  • Improving quality (37)

    Strategies to improve the total package, coordination or integration of care delivered. Interventions can involve substitution or expansion of one type of care, such as interventions that aim to overcome system barriers to medicines use, including access and financial barriers.

  • Minimising risks or harms (45)

    Strategies specifically focusing on preventing or managing adverse events of treatment and complications of disease. Interventions can be for ongoing treatment or related to emergency or crisis events. Strategies aim to minimise risks or harms at an individual or at a population level, such as reducing use of antibiotics, or augmenting immunisation uptake.

  • Providing information or education (71)

    Strategies to enable consumers to know about their treatment and their health. Interventions include those to educate, provide information, or to promote health or treatment. Interventions can be provided to individuals or groups, in print or verbally, or face to face or remotely. Interventions may be simple, such as those seeking solely to educate or provide information; or complex, such as those to promote or manage health or treatment as part of a multifaceted strategy.

  • Support (28)

    Strategies to provide assistance and encouragement to help consumers cope with and manage their health and related medicines use. Interventions can target patients or carers, as individuals or in groups, and may be delivered face to face or remotely.

  • Supporting behaviour change (78)

    Strategies focusing on the adoption or promotion of health and treatment behaviours, such as adherence to medicines. Interventions may address behaviour change for the under-use, overuse or misuse of medicines, and may include practical strategies to assist consumers in taking their medicines correctly such as reminder devices, pre-packaging of multiple medicines, or different or simplified medicine formulations.


Interventions that involve a change in the structure or delivery of health care.

  • Changes in medical records systems (6)

    Change in format or structure of medical record, such as switching to computerised records.

  • Changes in physical structure, facilities and equipment (2)

    For example, a change of location of nursing stations, inclusion of equipment where technology in question is used in a wide range of problems and is not disease specific.

  • Changes in scope and nature of benefits and services (2)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    For example, additional treatments being made available to the patient.

  • Changes to the setting/site of service delivery (5)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    For example, moving a family planning service from a hospital to a school.

  • Clinical multidisciplinary teams (11)

    Creation of a new team of health professionals of different disciplines or additions of new members to the team who work together to care for patients.

  • Communication and case discussion between distant health professionals (1)

    For example, telephone or video links between specialists and general practitioners.

  • Continuity of care (15)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    An intervention which includes one or many episodes of care for inpatients or outpatients. Continuity of care also includes arrangements for follow-up and case management, including co-ordination of assessment, treatment and arrangement for referrals.

  • Formal integration of services (4)

    Bringing together of services across sectors or teams or the organisation of services to bring all services together at one time

  • Organisational (patient oriented interventions)

    No reviews were located that assessed this intervention for evidence based prescribing and drug use.

    Changes in structure or delivery which target patients

  • Organisational (provider) - other (3)

    Other organisational (provider) interventions not addressed above.

  • Organisational (structural) - other (3)

    Other structural interventions not addressed above.

  • Ownership, accreditation, and affiliation status of hospitals and other facilities

    No reviews were located that assessed this intervention for evidence based prescribing and drug use.

    For example, a hospital changing from a university academic centre to a public institution.

  • Quality improvement (2)

    Presence and organisation of quality monitoring mechanisms

  • Revision of professional roles - general (5)

    Also known as 'professional substitution', specialist role' or 'boundary encroachment', this includes the shifting of roles among health professionals and expansion of role to include new tasks. See also revision of professional roles – nursing and revision of professional roles – pharmacy intervention categories for specified nursing or pharmacy led care.

  • Revision of professional roles - nursing (14)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    The expansion of nursing roles to include new tasks

  • Revision of professional roles - pharmacy (28)

    New evidence added as of April 2013

    The expansion of pharmacist roles to include new tasks

  • Satisfaction of providers with the conditions of work and the material and psychological rewards

    No reviews were located that assessed this intervention for evidence based prescribing and drug use.

    For example, interventions to improve morale of staff.

  • Skill mix changes (1)

    Changes in numbers, types or qualifications of staff.


Interventions that change professional reimbursement, incentives and penalties.

  • Financial (6)

    Any change in reimbursement, incentive payment or penalty of healthcare professional, organisation or patient.

  • Formulary (2)

    Medications added to or removed from reimbursable available products.


Interventions that aim to change health services delivery by regulation or law.

  • Regulatory (2)

    Any intervention that aims to change health services delivery by regulation or law.

Excluded Reviews

Systematic Reviews Search

Example: change to generic drug

Intervention Search

Example: change to generic drug