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Intervention

Professional Intervention: Audit and feedback

Definition

Any summary of clinical performance of health care over a specified period of time. The summary may also have included recommendations for clinical action. The information may have been obtained from medical records, computerised databases, or observations from patients.

Effectiveness

Eight high quality reviews (Baskerville, Boyle, Dwamena, Flodgren, French, Jamtvedt, Moore, Walsh) and three key reviews (Arnold, Davey, Shaw) were identified. Results from one high quality review (Jamtvedt) show that audit and feedback used alone or in combination with other interventions to be generally effective for improving appropriate care and prescribing outcomes. In one key review (Davey), results found audit and feedback to be generally effective for improving appropriate care outcomes but had an insufficient number of studies to draw conclusions on prescribing outcomes. The Moore review had unclear results for improving appropriate care behaviour and the Dwamena review found no effect on appropriate care when audit and feedback was combined with educational training interventions. Two key reviews (Arnold, Shaw) and four high quality reviews (Baskerville, Boyle, Flodgren, French) had an insufficient number of studies to draw any conclusions about the intervention.

Summary of Overall Findings from Reviews

45 reviews that evaluated the effectiveness of audit and feedback were identified. Of these, 2/4 high quality/key reviews with a sufficient number of studies to draw conclusions found this intervention to be generally effective. The Moore review had unclear results and the Dwamena review found no effect when audit and feedback was combined with educational training interventions.

Summary of Findings Related to Prescribing

1/1 high quality/key reviews with a sufficient number of studies to draw conclusions found this intervention to be generally effective for improving prescribing outcomes.

Reviews listed as "Summary Pending" will be analyzed, summarized and reported at a later date.

The findings will then be incorporated in the overall evidence summaries of the interventions they address.

Reviews Addressing This Intervention Quality Assessment Tool:
AMSTAR Score (of 11 points)
Moore PM, Rivera MS, Grez AM, Lawrie TA. Communication skills training for healthcare professionals working with people who have cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013 3:CD003751. 10 (High)
Walsh CM, Sherlock ME, Ling SC, Carnahan H. Virtual reality simulation training for health professions trainees in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012 6:CD008237. 10 (High)
Boyle R, Solberg L, Fiore M. Use of electronic health records to support smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 12:CD008743. 9 (High)
Flodgren G, Parmelli E, Doumit G, Gattellari M, O'Brien MA, Grimshaw J, Eccles MP. Local opinion leaders: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 8:CD000125. 9 (High)
French SD, Green S, Buchbinder R, Barnes H. Interventions for improving the appropriate use of imaging in people with musculoskeletal conditions. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 1:CD006094. 9 (High)
Baskerville NB, Liddy C, Hogg W. Systematic review and meta-analysis of practice facilitation within primary care settings. Annals of Family Medicine 2012 10 (1):63-74. 8 (High)
Dwamena F, Holmes-Rovner M, Gaulden CM, Jorgenson S, Sadigh G, Sikorskii A, Lewin S, Smith RC, Coffey J, Olomu A. Interventions for providers to promote a patient-centred approach in clinical consultations. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012 12:CD003267. 8 (High)
Ivers N, Jamtvedt G, Flottorp S, Young JM, Odgaard-Jensen J, French SD, O'Brien MA, Johansen M, Grimshaw J, Oxman AD. Audit and feedback: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012 6:CD000259. 8
Summary Pending
Jamtvedt G, Young JM, Kristoffersen DT, O'Brien MA, Oxman AD. Audit and feedback: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006 2:CD000259. 8 (High)
Lobach D, Sanders GD, Bright TJ, Wong A, Dhurjati R, Bristow E, Bastian L, Coeytaux R, Samsa G, Hasselblad V, Williams JW, Wing L, Musty M, Kendrick AS. Enabling health care decisionmaking through clinical decision support and knowledge management. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment 2012 (203):1-784. 8
Summary Pending
Akbari A, Mayhew A, Al-Alawi MA, Grimshaw J, Winkens R, Glidewell E, Pritchard C, Thomas R, Fraser C. Interventions to improve outpatient referrals from primary care to secondary care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 4:CD005471. 7 (Medium)
Arnold SR, Straus SE. Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices in ambulatory care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 4:CD003539. 7 (Medium)
Davey P, Brown E, Fenelon L, Finch R, Gould I, Hartman G, Holmes A, Ramsay C, Taylor E, Wilcox M, Wiffen P. Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices for hospital inpatients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 4:CD003543. 7 (Medium)
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Grimshaw JM, Thomas RE, MacLennan G, Fraser C, Ramsay CR, Vale L, Whitty P, Eccles MP, Matowe L, Shirran L, Wensing M, Dijkstra R, Donaldson C. Effectiveness and efficiency of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies. Health Technology Assessment 2004 8 (6):iii-iiv. 7 (Medium)
Marinopoulos SS, Dorman T, Ratanawongsa N, Wilson LM, Ashar BH, Magaziner JL, Miller RG, Thomas PA, Prokopowicz GP, Qayyum R, Bass EB. Effectiveness of continuing medical education. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment 2007 (149):1-69. 7 (Medium)
Renders CM, Valk GD, Griffin S, Wagner EH, Eijk JT, Assendelft WJ. Interventions to improve the management of diabetes mellitus in primary care, outpatient and community settings. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001 1:CD001481. 7 (Medium)
Thomas RE, Russell ML, Lorenzetti DL. Systematic review of interventions to increase influenza vaccination rates of those 60 years and older. Vaccine 2010 28 (7):1684-701. 7 (Medium)
Brusamento S, Legido-Quigley H, Panteli D, Turk E, Knai C, Saliba V, Car J, McKee M, Busse R. Assessing the effectiveness of strategies to implement clinical guidelines for the management of chronic diseases at primary care level in EU Member States: a systematic review. Health Policy 2012 107 (41700):169-183. 6
Summary Pending
Bywood PT, Lunnay B, Roche AM. Strategies for facilitating change in alcohol and other drugs (AOD) professional practice: a systematic review of the effectiveness of reminders and feedback. Drug and Alcohol Review 2008 27 (5):548-58. 6 (Medium)
Duckers M, Faber M, Cruijsberg J, Grol R, Schoonhoven L, Wensing M. Safety and risk management interventions in hospitals: a systematic review of the literature. Medical Care Research and Review 2009 66 (Suppl 6):90S-119S. 6 (Medium)
Firmstone VR, Elley KM, Skrybant MT, Fry-Smith A, Bayliss S, Torgerson CJ. Systematic review of the effectiveness of continuing dental professional development on learning, behavior, or patient outcomes. Journal of Dental Education 2013 77 (3):300-315. 6
Summary Pending
Lau D, Hu J, Majumdar SR, Storie DA, Rees SE, Johnson JA. Interventions to improve influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates among community-dwelling adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Family Medicine 2012 10 (6):538-546. 6
Summary Pending
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Cleveringa FG, Gorter KJ, van den Donk M, van GJ, Rutten GE. Computerized decision support systems in primary care for type 2 diabetes patients only improve patients' outcomes when combined with feedback on performance and case management: a systematic review. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2013 15 (2):180-192. 5
Summary Pending
Coory M, White VM, Johnson KS, Hill DJ, Jefford M, Harrison S, Winship I, Millar J, Giles GG. Systematic review of quality improvement interventions directed at cancer specialists. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2013 31 (12):1583-1591. 5
Summary Pending
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Summary Pending
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Summary Pending
Mansell G, Shapley M, Jordan JL, Jordan K. Interventions to reduce primary care delay in cancer referral: a systematic review. British Journal of General Practice 2011 61 (593):e821-e835. 4 (Medium)
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