Begin main content

Intervention

Consumer Intervention: Providing information or education

Definition

Strategies to enable consumers to know about their treatment and their health. Interventions include those to educate, provide information, or to promote health or treatment. Interventions can be provided to individuals or groups, in print or verbally, or face to face or remotely. Interventions may be simple, such as those seeking solely to educate or provide information; or complex, such as those to promote or manage health or treatment as part of a multifaceted strategy.

Effectiveness

Overall there is insufficient evidence to support the use of interventions that provide information or education as a single component to improve adherence, knowledge or clinical outcomes - they are generally ineffective.

There is some evidence that interventions including a patient education or information component in conjunction with other interventions improve immunisation rates - they are generally effective, however there are only a small number of these types of interventions investigating coverage of child immunization in low- and middle-income countries. There is some evidence that effective interventions to improve influenza immunisation include tailored reminders on their own or with telephone invitation; home visit plus vaccination; free vaccination offer; facilitators working with physicians and financial incentives to physicians, however participant reminders alone were inconsistent and physician reminders alone are generally ineffective. The remainder of participant or professional interventions to improve influenza coverage are lacking trials. There is some evidence that lay health worker interventions improve cure rates for combined new and retreated smear-positive tuberculosis patients - they are generally effective. However, the results for cure rates for new smear-positive tuberculosis patients alone and combined cure and treatment completion groups are mixed.

There is some evidence that decision aids improve knowledge about treatments, and that including a patient education and information component with other interventions such as self-management or self-monitoring skills training or counselling may improve adherence and other medicines use outcomes, but results are mixed and effects on clinical and other outcomes generally unclear. There is insufficient evidence on the effects of including information and education as components of interventions other than self-management or counselling - they are generally ineffective. There is insufficient evidence to determine if parenting training for intellectually disabled parents is effective at improving child health medicines use related outcomes.

There is inconsistent evidence that service organisation interventions improve clinical outcomes, however for appropriate prescribing of medicines they are generally ineffective. There is some evidence that pharmacist and other health professional delivered services with an educational component targeting patients improves total number of medicines prescribed. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effects of: pharmacist services targeting patients on other medicines use outcomes; behavioural interventions to improve medication adherence in children with HIV; cancer clinic orientation activities on patient outcomes; and positive framing of medication information on persuading people about medication attributes or goals. There were inconsistent results about the effectiveness of home-based education for asthma.

Summary of Overall Findings from Reviews

Summary of Findings Related to Prescribing

71 reviews focussing on information provision or education relevant to medicines use were identified, 38 of these were of high quality.

Reviews most often assessed multifaceted strategies providing information or education as a component of interventions, but in a small number of cases information or education were provided alone.

Four reviews focussed on information or education provided as single strategies, reporting few effects on adherence, medicines use or clinical outcomes, and mixed effects on knowledge (Gibson 2002, Johnson 2003, Nicolson 2009 and Li 2011). Several other reviews, while focussing on a broader range of interventions overall, included selected studies assessing information or education as single strategies and also reported significant improvements in only a minority of studies for adherence, clinical outcomes or knowledge (Bradley 2008, Schedlbauer 2010, Schroeder 2004, Tapp 2007, Vermeire 2005). Decision aids were shown to improve knowledge, as well as accuracy of risk perception (Stacey 2011).

Reviews of multifaceted interventions incorporating information or education components, such as psychoeducation (Pekkala 2002), action plans for COPD (Turnock 2005), enhanced counselling (Halpern 2011), pharmacist-based patient services (Nkansah 2010), pharmacist education and medicines management for hypertension (Machado 2007) or hyperlipidaemia (Machado 2008) or providing education in hospital rather than outpatient settings (Clar 2007), showed mixed effects or improved outcomes (adherence, medicines use, clinical outcomes or knowledge) in only a minority of studies.

In contrast, education or information provided in conjunction with self-management skills training or counselling more consistently improved medicines use (Bradley 2008, Deakin 2005, Gray 2009, Rueda 2006, Savage 2011, Li 2011 and Lindsay 2010), although effects on clinical outcomes were typically mixed. Self-management education for oral anticoagulation therapy decreases most adverse events but not major haemorrhages. Conversely, there was sufficient evidence that self-monitoring decreases major haemorrhages but not thromboembolic events, mortality and minor haemorrhages. A significant proportion (mean 25%) of people assigned to self-monitoring or self-management were unable to complete treatment and dropped out, reasons included device problems, physical limitations preventing self-testing, inability to attend training or failing the assessment (Garcia-Alamino 2010).

One review (Boyd 2009) on education incorporating medicines review, action plans and/or instruction for children with asthma who repeatedly presented to emergency departments reported no significant effects on medicines use or clinical outcomes compared with control, although emergency department visits decreased. Another review was unable to identify an optimal asthma self-management education strategy from amongst various programs for adults (Powell 2002).

Service organisation interventions incorporating education had inconsistent effects on blood pressure readings and blood cholesterol levels (Buckley 2009). Education targeting patients that was delivered by pharmacists and healthcare professionals improves total number of medicines prescribed; however, there were no consistent effects of pharmacist services that targeted patients on other medicines use outcomes. Home-based education (plus support) also did not significantly improve patient or medicines use outcomes for children with HIV (Bain-Brickley 2011). Mixed effects were seen for cancer clinic orientation on knowledge/understanding of cancer or its treatments (Chan 2011) and for positive framing of medication information (Akl 2011).

Interventions incorporating education or information with late patient tracers to follow up patients not attending for tuberculosis treatment significantly improved treatment completion, interruption and failure but not mortality, in single studies reporting these outcomes (Lui 2008). Interventions by lay health workers incorporating patient education or information components increased general immunisation rates in children as well as cure rates in combined new and retreated smear-positive tuberculosis patients compared with other forms of adherence support (Lewin 2010). Interventions to improve coverage of child immunization in low- and middle-income countries reported information campaigns, facility based education alone or in combination with redesigned immunisation cards and evidence-based discussion with community groups increased uptake immunisations but results were based in single studies of the interventions (Oyo-Ita 2011). Increases in community influenza immunisations were observed with participant reminder and recall (telephone call and education brochure); education combined with vaccination offers and participant education by nurses and vaccinated patients compared nurses only (Thomas 2011). Patient information materials developed with consumer involvement increased medicines-lay related knowledge without increasing anxiety (Nilsen 2006). A review of parenting training for intellectually disabled parents reported significantly increased knowledge of recognition of a life threatening emergency but not knowledge of when to visit the doctor, using medicines safely, health comprehension and symptom recognition (Coren 2011).

Reviews listed as "Summary Pending" will be analyzed, summarized and reported at a later date.

The findings will then be incorporated in the overall evidence summaries of the interventions they address.

Reviews Addressing This Intervention Quality Assessment Tool:
AMSTAR Score (of 11 points)
Garcia-Alamino J, Ward A, Alonso-Coello P, Perera R, Bankhead C, Fitzmaurice D, Heneghan C. Self-monitoring and self-management of oral anticoagulation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 4:CD003839. 11 (High)
Welsh EJ, Hasan M, Li P. Home-based educational interventions for children with asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 10:CD008469. 11 (High)
Akl EA, Oxman AD, Herrin J, Vist GE, Terrenato I, Sperati F, Costiniuk C, Blank D, Schünemann H. Framing of health information messages. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 12:CD006777. 10 (High)
Boyd M, Lasserson TJ, McKean MC, Gibson PG, Ducharme FM, Haby M. Interventions for educating children who are at risk of asthma-related emergency department attendance. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009 2:CD001290. 10 (High)
Gray TA, Orton LC, Henson D, Harper R, Waterman H. Interventions for improving adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009 2:CD006132. 10 (High)
Haynes RB, Ackloo E, Sahota N, McDonald HP, Yao X. Interventions for enhancing medication adherence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 2:CD000011. 10 (High)
Lewin S, Munabi-Babigumira S, Glenton C, Daniels K, Bosch-Capblanch X, van Wyk B, Odgaard-Jensen J, Johansen M, Aja G, Zwarenstein M, Scheel I. Lay health workers in primary and community health care for maternal and child health and the management of infectious diseases. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 3:CD004015. 10 (High)
Li T, Wu HM, Wang F, Huang CQ, Yang M, Dong BR, Liu GJ. Education programmes for people with diabetic kidney disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 6:CD007374. 10 (High)
Schroeder K, Fahey T, Ebrahim S. Interventions for improving adherence to treatment in patients with high blood pressure in ambulatory settings. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004 2:CD004804. 10 (High)
Stacey D, Bennett CL, Barry MJ, Col NF, Eden KB, Holmes-Rovner M, Llewellyn-Thomas H, Lyddiatt A, Legare F, Thomson R. Decision aids for people facing health treatment or screening decisions (update). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 10:CD001431. 10 (High)
Thomas RE, Russell M, Lorenzetti D. Interventions to increase influenza vaccination rates of those 60 years and older in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 9:CD005188. 10 (High)
Vermeire E, Wens J, Van RP, Biot Y, Hearnshaw H, Lindenmeyer A. Interventions for improving adherence to treatment recommendations in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 2:CD003638. 10 (High)
Bain-Brickley D, Butler LM, Kennedy GE, Rutherford GW. Interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV infection. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 12:CD009513. 9 (High)
Bradley PM, Lindsay B. Care delivery and self-management strategies for adults with epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 1:CD006244. 9 (High)
Chan RJ, Webster J, Marquart L. Information interventions for orienting patients and their carers to cancer care facilities. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 12:CD008273. 9 (High)
Clar C, Waugh N, Thomas S. Routine hospital admission versus out-patient or home care in children at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 2:CD004099. 9 (High)
Deakin T, McShane CE, Cade JE, Williams RD. Group based training for self-management strategies in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 2:CD003417. 9 (High)
Lindsay B, Bradley PM. Care delivery and self-management strategies for children with epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 12:CD006245. 9 (High)
Liu Q, Abba K, Alejandria MM, Balanag VM, Berba RP, Lansang MA. Reminder systems and late patient tracers in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 4:CD006594. 9 (High)
Nicolson D, Knapp P, Raynor DK, Spoor P. Written information about individual medicines for consumers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009 2:CD002104. 9 (High)
Nilsen ES, Myrhaug HT, Johansen M, Oliver S, Oxman AD. Methods of consumer involvement in developing healthcare policy and research, clinical practice guidelines and patient information material. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006 3:CD004563. 9 (High)
Nkansah N, Mostovetsky O, Yu C, Chheng T, Beney J, Bond C, Bero L. Effect of outpatient pharmacists' non-dispensing roles on patient outcomes and prescribing patterns. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 7:CD000336. 9 (High)
Powell H, Gibson PG. Options for self-management education for adults with asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003 1:CD004107. 9 (High)
Rueda S, Park-Wyllie LY, Bayoumi AM, Tynan AM, Antoniou TA, Rourke SB, Glazier RH. Patient support and education for promoting adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006 3:CD001442. 9 (High)
Savage E, Beirne PV, Ni Chroinin M, Duff A, Fitzgerald T, Farrell D. Self-management education for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 7:CD007641. 9 (High)
Schedlbauer A, Davies P, Fahey T. Interventions to improve adherence to lipid lowering medication. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 3:CD004371. 9 (High)
Tapp S, Lasserson TJ, Rowe B. Education interventions for adults who attend the emergency room for acute asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 3:CD003000. 9 (High)
Buckley B, Byrne M, Smith S. Service organisation for the secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease in primary care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 3:CD006772. 8 (High)
Coren E, Hutchfield J, Thomae M, Gustafsson C. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 6:CD007987. 8 (High)
Gibson PG, Powell H, Coughlan J, Wilson AJ, Hensley MJ, Abramson M, Bauman A, Walters EH. Limited (information only) patient education programs for adults with asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002 2:CD001005. 8 (High)
Halpern V, Lopez LM, Grimes DA, Gallo MF. Strategies to improve adherence and acceptability of hormonal methods of contraception. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 4:CD004317. 8 (High)
Johnson A, Sandford J, Tyndall J. Written and verbal information versus verbal information only for patients being discharged from acute hospital settings to home. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003 4:CD003716. 8 (High)
Jones A, Fay JK, Ram FSF. Primary care based clinics for asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002 1:CD003533. 8 (High)
Machado M, Bajcar J, Guzzo GC, Einarson TR. Sensitivity of patient outcomes to pharmacist interventions. Part II: systematic review and meta-analysis in hypertension management. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2007 41 (11):1770-81. 8 (High)
Machado M, Nassor N, Bajcar JM, Guzzo GC, Einarson TR. Sensitivity of patient outcomes to pharmacist interventions. Part III: systematic review and meta-analysis in hyperlipidemia management. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2008 42 (9):1195-207. 8 (High)
Oyo-Ita A, Nwachukwu CE, Oringanje C, Meremikwu MM. Interventions for improving coverage of child immunization in low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 7:CD008145. 8 (High)
Pekkala E, Merinder L. Psychoeducation for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002 2:CD002831. 8 (High)
Turnock AC, Walters EH, Walters JA, Wood-Baker R. Action plans for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 4:CD005074. 8 (High)
Viswanathan M, Golin CE, Jones CD, Ashok M, Blalock SJ, Wines RC, Coker-Schwimmer EJ, Rosen DL, Sista P, Lohr KN. Interventions to improve adherence to self-administered medications for chronic diseases in the United States: a systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012 157 (11):785-795. 8
Summary Pending
Al-aqeel S, Al-sabhan J. Strategies for improving adherence to antiepileptic drug treatment in patients with epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 1:CD008312. 7 (Medium)
Bailey EJ, Cates CJ, Kruske SG, Morris PS, Chang AB, Brown N. Culture-specific programs for children and adults from minority groups who have asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009 1:CD006580. 7 (Medium)
Bennett M, Bagnall A, Jose CS. How effective are patient-based educational interventions in the management of cancer pain? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain 2009 143 (3):192-9. 7 (Medium)
Berkman ND, Sheridan SL, Donahue KE, Halpern DJ, Viera A, Crotty K, Holland A, Brasure M, Lohr KN, Harden E, Tant E, Wallace I, Viswanathan M. Health literacy interventions and outcomes: an updated systematic review. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment 2011 (199):1-941. 7 (Medium)
Effing T, Monninkhof EM, van der Valk PD, van der Palen J, van Herwaarden CL, Partidge MR, Walters EH, Zielhuis GA. Self-management education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 4:CD002990. 7 (Medium)
Gibson PG, Powell H, Coughlan J, Wilson AJ, Abramson M, Haywood P, Bauman A, Hensley MJ, Walters EH. Self-management education and regular practitioner review for adults with asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003 1:CD001117. 7 (Medium)
Machado M, Bajcar J, Guzzo GC, Einarson TR. Sensitivity of patient outcomes to pharmacist interventions. Part I: systematic review and meta-analysis in diabetes management. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2007 41 (10):1569-82. 7 (Medium)
Olthoff CM, Schouten JS, van de Borne BW, Webers CA. Noncompliance with ocular hypotensive treatment in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension an evidence-based review. Ophthalmology 2005 112 (6):953-61. 7 (Medium)
Stone EG, Morton SC, Hulscher ME, Maglione MA, Roth EA, Grimshaw JM, Mittman BS, Rubenstein LV, Rubenstein LZ, Shekelle PG. Interventions that increase use of adult immunization and cancer screening services: a meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002 136 (9):641-51. 7 (Medium)
Gleeson T, Iversen MD, Avorn J, Brookhart AM, Katz JN, Losina E, May F, Patrick AR, Shrank WH, Solomon DH. Interventions to improve adherence and persistence with osteoporosis medications: a systematic literature review. Osteoporosis International 2009 20:2127-2134. 6 (Medium)
Haywood CJ, Beach M, Lanzkron S, Strouse J, Wilson R, Park H, Witkop C, Bass E, Segal J. A systematic review of barriers and interventions to improve appropriate use of therapies for sickle cell disease. Journal of the National Medical Association 2009 101 (10):1022-33. 6 (Medium)
Holland R, Desborough J, Goodyer L, Hall S, Wright D, Loke YK. Does pharmacist-led medication review help to reduce hospital admissions and deaths in older people? A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2008 65 (3):303-16. 6 (Medium)
Koshman SL, Charrois TL, Simpson SH, McAlister FA, Tsuyuki RT. Pharmacist care of patients with heart failure: a systematic review of randomized trials. Archives of Internal Medicine 2008 168 (7):687-94. 6 (Medium)
Lau D, Hu J, Majumdar SR, Storie DA, Rees SE, Johnson JA. Interventions to improve influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates among community-dwelling adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Family Medicine 2012 10 (6):538-546. 6
Summary Pending
Ranji SR, Steinman MA, Shojania KG, Gonzales R. Interventions to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing: a systematic review and quantitative analysis. Medical Care 2008 46 (8):847-62. 6 (Medium)
Winterbottom JB, Smyth RM, Jacoby A, Baker GA. Preconception counselling for women with epilepsy to reduce adverse pregnancy outcome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 3:CD006645. 6 (Medium)
Chivu CM, Tulchinsky TH, Soares-Weiser K, Braunstein R, Brezis M. A systematic review of interventions to increase awareness, knowledge, and folic acid consumption before and during pregnancy. American Journal of Health Promotion 2008 22 (4):237-45. 5 (Medium)
De Bleser L, Matteson M, Dobbels F, Russell C, De Geest S. Interventions to improve medication-adherence after transplantation: a systematic review. Transplant International 2009 22 (8):780-97. 5 (Medium)
Maglione MA, Stone EG, Shekelle PG. Mass mailings have little effect on utilization of influenza vaccine among Medicare beneficiaries. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2002 23 (1):43-6. 5 (Medium)
Mbuba CK, Ngugi AK, Newton CR, Carter JA. The epilepsy treatment gap in developing countries: a systematic review of the magnitude, causes, and intervention strategies. Epilepsia 2008 49 (9):1491-503. 5 (Medium)
Mollon B, Chong J Jr, Holbrook AM, Sung M, Thabane L, Foster G. Features predicting the success of computerized decision support for prescribing: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2009 9. 5 (Medium)
Parr JM, Kavanagh DJ, Cahill L, Mitchell G, Young RM. Effectiveness of current treatment approaches for benzodiazepine discontinuation: a meta-analysis. Addiction (Abingdon, England) 2009 104 (1):13-24. 5 (Medium)
Smith LA, Jones C, Meek S, Webster J. Review: Provider practice and user behavior interventions to improve prompt and effective treatment of malaria: do we know what works? American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2009 80 (3):326-35. 5 (Medium)
Stevenson FA, Cox K, Britten N, Dundar Y. A systematic review of the research on communication between patients and health care professionals about medicines: the consequences for concordance. Health Expectations 2004 7 (3):235-45. 5 (Medium)
Van Wijk BL, Klungel OH, Heerdink ER, de Boer A. Effectiveness of interventions by community pharmacists to improve patient adherence to chronic medication: a systematic review. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2005 39 (2):319-28. 5 (Medium)
Vergouwen AC, Bakker A, Katon WJ, Verheij TJ, Koerselman F. Improving adherence to antidepressants: a systematic review of interventions. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 2003 64 (12):1415-20. 5 (Medium)
Wright J, Emerson A, Stephens M, Lennan E. Hospital inpatient self-administration of medicine programmes: a critical literature review. Pharmacy World & Science 2006 28 (3):140-51. 5 (Medium)
Yankova Z. Patients' knowledge of patient controlled analgesia (PCA) and their experience of postoperative pain relief: a review of the impact of structured preoperative education. Journal of Advanced Perioperative Care 2008 3 (3):91-9. 5 (Medium)
Amico KR, Harman JJ, Johnson BT. Efficacy of antiretroviral therapy adherence interventions: a research synthesis of trials, 1996 to 2004. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2006 41 (3):285-97. 4 (Medium)
Morrison A, Wertheimer AI. Evaluation of studies investigating the effectiveness of pharmacists' clinical services. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2001 58 (7):569-77. 4 (Medium)
Nishtala PS, McLachlan A, Bell JS, Chen TF. Psychotropic prescribing in long-term care facilities: impact of medication reviews and educational interventions. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2008 16 (8):621-32. 4 (Medium)
Odegard PS, Capoccia K. Medication taking and diabetes: a systematic review of the literature. The Diabetes Educator 2007 33 (6):1014-29. 4 (Medium)
Russell CL, Conn VS, Jantarakupt P. Older adult medication compliance: integrated review of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Health Behavior 2006 30 (6):636-50. 4 (Medium)
Van Camp YP, Van RB, Elseviers MM. Nurse-led interventions to enhance adherence to chronic medication: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2013 69 (4):761-770. 4
Summary Pending
Zygmunt A, Olfson M, Boyer CA, Mechanic D. Interventions to improve medication adherence in schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2002 159 (10):1653-64. 4 (Medium)
Altowaijri A, Phillips CJ, Fitzsimmons D. A systematic review of the clinical and economic effectiveness of clinical pharmacist intervention in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy 2013 19 (5):408-416. Summary Pending
Demonceau J, Ruppar T, Kristanto P, Hughes DA, Fargher E, Kardas P, De GS, Dobbels F, Lewek P, Urquhart J, Vrijens B, ABC Project Team. Identification and assessment of adherence-enhancing interventions in studies assessing medication adherence through electronically compiled drug dosing histories: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Drugs 2013 73 (6):545-562. Summary Pending
Fuangchan A, Dhippayom T, Kongkaew C. Intervention to promote patients' adherence to antimalarial medication: a systematic review. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 2014 90 (1):43770. Summary Pending
Gwadry-Sridhar FH, Manias E, Lal L, Salas M, Hughes DA, Ratzki-Leewing A, Grubisic M. Impact of interventions on medication adherence and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension: a systematic review by the ISPOR medication adherence and persistence special interest group. Value in Health 2013 16 (5):863-871. Summary Pending
Hiligsmann M, Salas M, Hughes DA, Manias E, Gwadry-Sridhar FH, Linck P, Cowell W. Interventions to improve osteoporosis medication adherence and persistence: a systematic review and literature appraisal by the ISPOR Medication Adherence & Persistence Special Interest Group. Osteoporosis International 2013 24 (12):2907-2918. Summary Pending
Lopez LM, Hiller JE, Grimes DA, Chen M. Education for contraceptive use by women after childbirth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012 8:CD001863. Summary Pending
Moullec G, Gour-Provencal G, Bacon SL, Campbell TS, Lavoie KL. Efficacy of interventions to improve adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in adult asthmatics: impact of using components of the chronic care model. Respiratory Medicine 2012 106 (9):1211-1225. Summary Pending
Newman-Casey PA, Weizer JS, Heisler M, Lee PP, Stein JD. Systematic review of educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Seminars in Ophthalmology 2013 28 (3):191-201. Summary Pending
Shah HA, Abu-Amara M. Education provides significant benefits to patients with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review. Clinical Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2013 11 (8):922-933. Summary Pending
Spinewine A, Claeys C, Foulon V, Chevalier P. Approaches for improving continuity of care in medication management: a systematic review. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 2013 25 (4):403-417. Summary Pending
Stead LF, Lancaster T. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012 10:CD008286. Summary Pending
Waterman H, Evans JR, Gray TA, Henson D, Harper R. Interventions for improving adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013 4:CD006132. Summary Pending