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Intervention

Consumer Intervention: Supporting behaviour change

Definition

Strategies focusing on the adoption or promotion of health and treatment behaviours, such as adherence to medicines. Interventions may address behaviour change for the under-use, overuse or misuse of medicines, and may include practical strategies to assist consumers in taking their medicines correctly such as reminder devices, pre-packaging of multiple medicines, or different or simplified medicine formulations.

Effectiveness

Overall, there were mixed effects of interventions to support behaviour change in relation to medicines use. Generally, there is some evidence of the effectiveness of simple interventions for short-term treatments, and complex interventions for long-term treatments to improve adherence and clinical outcomes.

More specifically, there is sufficient evidence that self-monitoring or self-management, and some evidence that simplified dosing regimens are effective in improving medicines adherence; however there is not enough evidence to decide on an optimal simplified regimen. There is also some evidence that support and education are effective in improving adherence, although results are mixed.

There is sufficient evidence that continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is effective in improving HbA1c levels and daily insulin requirements as well as some evidence of improved clinical outcomes. There is some evidence that mortality, adverse events and nocturnal hypoglycaemia are rare and are not different between the CSII and usual multiple daily insulin injection regimes.

Directly observed therapy, contract-based interventions and decision aids are generally ineffective to improve adherence or clinical outcomes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of counselling or psychoeducation to support behaviour change, and some evidence that motivation and support may be effective to improve adherence, but with mixed results.

There is insufficient evidence to determine the effects of interventions providing information alone on adherence or medicines behaviours; there is also insufficient evidence that interventions including information or education components improve adherence or other outcomes - they are generally ineffective. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effects of education as part of self-management for supporting behaviour change in relation to medicines use. There is some evidence that action plans improve medicines use, adherence and emergency room visits, although results are mixed; and some evidence that education plus medicines review, action plans and instruction decreases emergency department visits, although insufficient evidence of effects on medicines use and clinical outcomes.

There is some evidence that interventions including reminder components improve medicines adherence, with mixed results. There is also some evidence that reminders improve immunisation uptake - they are generally effective. There is some evidence that medicine packaging interventions may improve adherence, but results are mixed; and insufficient evidence to determine the effects of late patient tracers on medicines use and other outcomes. There is some evidence that interventions changing care delivery, including interventions delivered by pharmacists taking on different roles are effective to improve medicines use, but results are mixed. There is insufficient evidence that service organisation interventions improve appropriate prescribing of medicines - they are generally ineffective and clinical outcomes are mixed.

There is some evidence that tailored reminders, recall, home visits plus vaccination, free vaccination offers, facilitators working with physicians and financial incentives to physicians improve influenza immunisation demand and are generally effective. However, participant reminders alone for influenza immunisation give inconsistent results and physician reminders alone are generally ineffective. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of a range of other participant or physician interventions on influenza immunisation uptake. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether interventions to improve coverage of child immunization in low- and middle-income countries are effective. There is some evidence that lay health worker interventions and organisational change improve immunisation uptake and are generally effective. There is insufficient evidence that lay health worker interventions improve completion of preventive therapy -they are generally ineffective. There is some evidence that material incentives improve TB prophylaxis adherence, but insufficient evidence to determine if they are effective in improving adherence for TB treatment. There is also insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions specifically designed for Indigenous people, or the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to improve medication adherence for children with HIV.

Summary of Overall Findings from Reviews

Summary of Findings Related to Prescribing

78 reviews focusing on supporting behaviour change in relation to medicines use were identified, 45 of high quality. Reviews included diverse strategies, both simple and complex, and looked across diseases or were disease-focused.

One large cross-disease review reported mixed effects of interventions on medicines adherence and clinical outcomes: the majority of effective interventions for short-term treatment were simple, while most effective interventions for long-term treatment were complex (Haynes 2008). Another large review on support for behaviour change using decision aids reported improved knowledge and decision-making outcomes, but few consistent effects on treatment uptake, adherence or health outcomes across treatments (Stacey 2011).

Several interventions to support behaviour change improved medicines use behaviours. Self-management significantly improved most adverse events and increased mean INR within target range. Self-monitoring significantly decreased major haemorrhages but had non-significant effects on other adverse event outcomes. Testing frequency was higher with self-management and self-monitoring, as was treatment satisfaction. However a significant proportion (mean 25%) of people assigned to self-monitoring or self-management were unable to complete treatment and dropped out; trial participation was also low with 68% overall refusing participation ( Garcia-Alamino 2010).

Support and education, alone or as part of multifaceted interventions, improved adherence in approximately half of studies (Rueda 2006, Schroeder 2004). Simplified dosing regimens improved adherence in at least half of studies in several reviews (Schedelbauer 2010, Schroeder 2004, Vermeire 2005). In another, simplified topical eye treatment regimens improved numbers of missed doses but effects on adherence and clinical outcomes were inconsistent and there was not enough evidence to decide on an optimal simplified regimen (Gray 2009).

Other reviews reported better adherence in only a minority of studies with interventions such as patient motivation and support (Schroeder 2004); counselling (Halpern 2011); and psychoeducation (Pekkala 2002); while neither directly observed therapy (Volmink 2007) nor contract-based interventions (Bosch-Capblanch 2007) consistently improved adherence or other outcomes.

Information or education to support behaviour change had few consistent effects. Providing written and/or verbal information alone improved adherence in only a minority of studies, although knowledge improved in half of studies or more (Johnson 2003, Nicolson 2009). Similarly, interventions including an education or information component also reported better adherence in only a minority of studies (Schedelbauer 2010, Schroeder 2004, Vermeire 2005). Individual or group education plus routine diabetic kidney disease treatment significantly improved knowledge of insulin and oral medicines use but had mixed effects on belief of treatment and belief of personal control (Li 2011). Although, individual parenting training for intellectually disabled parents improved recognition of a life threatening emergency, there were no significant improvements in using medicines safely, or other knowledge and comprehension outcomes (Coren 2011).

Education provided with self-management or individualised care planning had mixed effects on adherence, medicines behaviours and clinical outcomes (Bradley 2008, Gray 2009, Powell 2002, Tapp 2007, Savage 2011 and Lindsay 2010), as did action plans as self-management approaches (Turnock 2005). While education incorporating medicines review, action plans and instruction had limited effects on medicines use or clinical outcomes, it did decrease emergency department visits for children with asthma (Boyd 2009).

Misso (2010) reported that continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion was effective in improving HbA1c levels and daily insulin requirements as well as some evidence of reducing severe, but not non-severe, hypoglycaemic events. There is some evidence that mortality, adverse events and nocturnal hypoglycaemia are rare and no different between the CSII and usual multiple daily insulin injection regimes.

Reminders to support behaviour change, including patient and/or provider reminders, significantly improved immunisation uptake (Jacobson 2005); but had mixed effects on medicines adherence (Bradley 2008, Gray 2009, Schedelbauer 2010). Interventions incorporating late patient tracers to follow up patients not attending for tuberculosis treatment significantly improved medicines use outcomes in a single study (treatment completion, interruption and failure) (Liu 2008). Reminder packaging for long-term medicines had mixed effects on adherence with improvements in the majority of studies when measured by pill count, but not with self-report; ease of use was mixed (Mahtani 2011 ).Unit-dose packaging strategies of medicines for malaria increased adherence in the majority of studies (Orton 2005). Directly observed therapy had non-significant effects on highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence, and clinical outcomes when compared to self-administered therapy and did not significantly change losses to follow-up (Ford 2009). Other behavioural interventions, such as support and medication diaries, had mixed effects on antiretroviral adherence and other patient outcomes for children with HIV (Bain-Brickley 2011).

Few reviews evaluated changing the organisation or delivery of care to support behaviour change. Effects of pharmacy-based education and facilitation, pharmacist-delivered patient services including education and medicines management, specialist units or nurses for epilepsy, or changing settings from hospital to home, were all mixed for adherence and clinical outcomes (Nkansah 2010, Bradley 2008, Clar 2007, Machado 2007, Machado 2008, Vermeire 2005). Service organisation interventions had mixed effects on clinical outcomes and there were no significant effects of service organisation interventions on numbers of medicines prescribed (Buckley 2009).

Lay health workers improved immunisation uptake (Lewin 2010). Child immunisation uptake in low and middle income countries was improved by home visits, information campaigns, facility based education alone or in combination with redesigned immunisation cards, evidence-based discussion with community groups. However, monetary incentive interventions or provider oriented training interventions with health system interventions had non-significant effects on child immunisation coverage in low and middle income countries (Oyo-Ita 2011). A review of a range of participant or physician interventions on influenza immunisation uptake reported significant increases in uptake for tailored reminders, recall, home visits plus vaccination, free vaccination offers, facilitators working with physicians and financial incentives to physicians. However, participant reminders alone had mixed effects on influenza immunisation uptake, and physician reminders alone did not significantly change influenza immunisation coverage (Thomas 2010). Patient financial incentives significantly improved smoking cessation treatment uptake; whereas the effects of provider financial incentives in this area were unclear (Reda 2009). The effectiveness of these incentives in improving adherence with TB prophylaxis or treatment was inconsistent (Lutge 2012).

Reviews listed as "Summary Pending" will be analyzed, summarized and reported at a later date.

The findings will then be incorporated in the overall evidence summaries of the interventions they address.

Reviews Addressing This Intervention Quality Assessment Tool:
AMSTAR Score (of 11 points)
Bhogal S, Zemek R, Ducharme FM. Written action plans for asthma in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006 3:CD005306. 11 (High)
Garcia-Alamino J, Ward A, Alonso-Coello P, Perera R, Bankhead C, Fitzmaurice D, Heneghan C. Self-monitoring and self-management of oral anticoagulation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 4:CD003839. 11 (High)
Lutge EE, Wiysonge CS, Knight SE, Volmink J. Material incentives and enablers in the management of tuberculosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012 1:CD007952. 11 (High)
Welsh EJ, Hasan M, Li P. Home-based educational interventions for children with asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 10:CD008469. 11 (High)
Boyd M, Lasserson TJ, McKean MC, Gibson PG, Ducharme FM, Haby M. Interventions for educating children who are at risk of asthma-related emergency department attendance. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009 2:CD001290. 10 (High)
Gray TA, Orton LC, Henson D, Harper R, Waterman H. Interventions for improving adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009 2:CD006132. 10 (High)
Haynes RB, Ackloo E, Sahota N, McDonald HP, Yao X. Interventions for enhancing medication adherence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 2:CD000011. 10 (High)
Jacobson VJ, Szilagyi P. Patient reminder and patient recall systems to improve immunization rates. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 3:CD003941. 10 (High)
Kisely SR, Campbell LA, Preston NJ. Compulsory community and involuntary outpatient treatment for people with severe mental disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 2:CD004408. 10 (High)
Lewin S, Munabi-Babigumira S, Glenton C, Daniels K, Bosch-Capblanch X, van Wyk B, Odgaard-Jensen J, Johansen M, Aja G, Zwarenstein M, Scheel I. Lay health workers in primary and community health care for maternal and child health and the management of infectious diseases. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 3:CD004015. 10 (High)
Li T, Wu HM, Wang F, Huang CQ, Yang M, Dong BR, Liu GJ. Education programmes for people with diabetic kidney disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 6:CD007374. 10 (High)
Mahtani KR, Heneghan CJ, Glasziou PP, Perera R. Reminder packaging for improving adherence to selfadministered long-term medications. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 9:CD005025. 10 (High)
McIntosh AM, Conlon L, Lawrie SM, Stanfield AC. Compliance therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006 3:CD00344. 10 (High)
Misso ML, Egberts K, Page M, O'Connor D, Shaw J. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple insulin injections for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 1:CD005103. 10 (High)
Orton L, Barnish G. Unit-dose packaged drugs for treating malaria. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 2:CD004614. 10 (High)
Schroeder K, Fahey T, Ebrahim S. Interventions for improving adherence to treatment in patients with high blood pressure in ambulatory settings. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004 2:CD004804. 10 (High)
Stacey D, Bennett CL, Barry MJ, Col NF, Eden KB, Holmes-Rovner M, Llewellyn-Thomas H, Lyddiatt A, Legare F, Thomson R. Decision aids for people facing health treatment or screening decisions (update). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 10:CD001431. 10 (High)
Thomas RE, Russell M, Lorenzetti D. Interventions to increase influenza vaccination rates of those 60 years and older in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 9:CD005188. 10 (High)
Vermeire E, Wens J, Van RP, Biot Y, Hearnshaw H, Lindenmeyer A. Interventions for improving adherence to treatment recommendations in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 2:CD003638. 10 (High)
Volmink J, Garner P. Directly observed therapy for treating tuberculosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 4:CD003343. 10 (High)
Bain-Brickley D, Butler LM, Kennedy GE, Rutherford GW. Interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV infection. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 12:CD009513. 9 (High)
Bosch-Capblanch X, Abba K, Prictor M, Garner P. Contracts between patients and healthcare practitioners for improving patients' adherence to treatment, prevention and health promotion activities. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 2:CD004808. 9 (High)
Bradley PM, Lindsay B. Care delivery and self-management strategies for adults with epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 1:CD006244. 9 (High)
Clar C, Waugh N, Thomas S. Routine hospital admission versus out-patient or home care in children at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 2:CD004099. 9 (High)
Ford N, Nachega J, Engel M, Mills E. Directly observed antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Lancet 2009 374 (9707):2064-71. 9 (High)
Lindsay B, Bradley PM. Care delivery and self-management strategies for children with epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 12:CD006245. 9 (High)
Liu Q, Abba K, Alejandria MM, Balanag VM, Berba RP, Lansang MA. Reminder systems and late patient tracers in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 4:CD006594. 9 (High)
Nicolson D, Knapp P, Raynor DK, Spoor P. Written information about individual medicines for consumers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009 2:CD002104. 9 (High)
Nkansah N, Mostovetsky O, Yu C, Chheng T, Beney J, Bond C, Bero L. Effect of outpatient pharmacists' non-dispensing roles on patient outcomes and prescribing patterns. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 7:CD000336. 9 (High)
Powell H, Gibson PG. Options for self-management education for adults with asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003 1:CD004107. 9 (High)
Reda AA, Kaper J, Fikrelter H, Severens JL, van Schayck CP. Healthcare financing systems for increasing the use of tobacco dependence treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009 2:CD004305. 9 (High)
Rueda S, Park-Wyllie LY, Bayoumi AM, Tynan AM, Antoniou TA, Rourke SB, Glazier RH. Patient support and education for promoting adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006 3:CD001442. 9 (High)
Savage E, Beirne PV, Ni Chroinin M, Duff A, Fitzgerald T, Farrell D. Self-management education for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 7:CD007641. 9 (High)
Schedlbauer A, Davies P, Fahey T. Interventions to improve adherence to lipid lowering medication. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 3:CD004371. 9 (High)
Tapp S, Lasserson TJ, Rowe B. Education interventions for adults who attend the emergency room for acute asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 3:CD003000. 9 (High)
Buckley B, Byrne M, Smith S. Service organisation for the secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease in primary care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 3:CD006772. 8 (High)
Carson KV, Brinn MP, Peters M, Veale A, Esterman AJ, Smith BJ. Interventions for smoking cessation in Indigenous populations. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012 1:CD009046. 8 (High)
Coren E, Hutchfield J, Thomae M, Gustafsson C. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 6:CD007987. 8 (High)
Halpern V, Lopez LM, Grimes DA, Gallo MF. Strategies to improve adherence and acceptability of hormonal methods of contraception. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 4:CD004317. 8 (High)
Johnson A, Sandford J, Tyndall J. Written and verbal information versus verbal information only for patients being discharged from acute hospital settings to home. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003 4:CD003716. 8 (High)
Machado M, Bajcar J, Guzzo GC, Einarson TR. Sensitivity of patient outcomes to pharmacist interventions. Part II: systematic review and meta-analysis in hypertension management. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2007 41 (11):1770-81. 8 (High)
Machado M, Nassor N, Bajcar JM, Guzzo GC, Einarson TR. Sensitivity of patient outcomes to pharmacist interventions. Part III: systematic review and meta-analysis in hyperlipidemia management. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2008 42 (9):1195-207. 8 (High)
Oyo-Ita A, Nwachukwu CE, Oringanje C, Meremikwu MM. Interventions for improving coverage of child immunization in low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 7:CD008145. 8 (High)
Pekkala E, Merinder L. Psychoeducation for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002 2:CD002831. 8 (High)
Turnock AC, Walters EH, Walters JA, Wood-Baker R. Action plans for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 4:CD005074. 8 (High)
Viswanathan M, Golin CE, Jones CD, Ashok M, Blalock SJ, Wines RC, Coker-Schwimmer EJ, Rosen DL, Sista P, Lohr KN. Interventions to improve adherence to self-administered medications for chronic diseases in the United States: a systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012 157 (11):785-795. 8
Summary Pending
Al-aqeel S, Al-sabhan J. Strategies for improving adherence to antiepileptic drug treatment in patients with epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 1:CD008312. 7 (Medium)
Bayoumi I, Howard M, Holbrook A, Schabort I. Interventions to improve medication reconciliation in primary care. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2009 43 (10):1667-75. 7 (Medium)
Bennett M, Bagnall A, Jose CS. How effective are patient-based educational interventions in the management of cancer pain? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain 2009 143 (3):192-9. 7 (Medium)
Effing T, Monninkhof EM, van der Valk PD, van der Palen J, van Herwaarden CL, Partidge MR, Walters EH, Zielhuis GA. Self-management education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 4:CD002990. 7 (Medium)
Gibson PG, Powell H, Coughlan J, Wilson AJ, Abramson M, Haywood P, Bauman A, Hensley MJ, Walters EH. Self-management education and regular practitioner review for adults with asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003 1:CD001117. 7 (Medium)
Machado M, Bajcar J, Guzzo GC, Einarson TR. Sensitivity of patient outcomes to pharmacist interventions. Part I: systematic review and meta-analysis in diabetes management. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2007 41 (10):1569-82. 7 (Medium)
Olthoff CM, Schouten JS, van de Borne BW, Webers CA. Noncompliance with ocular hypotensive treatment in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension an evidence-based review. Ophthalmology 2005 112 (6):953-61. 7 (Medium)
Stone EG, Morton SC, Hulscher ME, Maglione MA, Roth EA, Grimshaw JM, Mittman BS, Rubenstein LV, Rubenstein LZ, Shekelle PG. Interventions that increase use of adult immunization and cancer screening services: a meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002 136 (9):641-51. 7 (Medium)
Gleeson T, Iversen MD, Avorn J, Brookhart AM, Katz JN, Losina E, May F, Patrick AR, Shrank WH, Solomon DH. Interventions to improve adherence and persistence with osteoporosis medications: a systematic literature review. Osteoporosis International 2009 20:2127-2134. 6 (Medium)
Haywood CJ, Beach M, Lanzkron S, Strouse J, Wilson R, Park H, Witkop C, Bass E, Segal J. A systematic review of barriers and interventions to improve appropriate use of therapies for sickle cell disease. Journal of the National Medical Association 2009 101 (10):1022-33. 6 (Medium)
Holland R, Desborough J, Goodyer L, Hall S, Wright D, Loke YK. Does pharmacist-led medication review help to reduce hospital admissions and deaths in older people? A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2008 65 (3):303-16. 6 (Medium)
Koshman SL, Charrois TL, Simpson SH, McAlister FA, Tsuyuki RT. Pharmacist care of patients with heart failure: a systematic review of randomized trials. Archives of Internal Medicine 2008 168 (7):687-94. 6 (Medium)
Molife C, Lee L, Shi L, Sawhney M, Lenox S. Assessment of patient-reported outcomes of insulin pen devices versus conventional vial and syringe. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2009 11 (8):529-38. 6 (Medium)
Ranji SR, Steinman MA, Shojania KG, Gonzales R. Interventions to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing: a systematic review and quantitative analysis. Medical Care 2008 46 (8):847-62. 6 (Medium)
van Eijken M, Tsang S, Wensing M, de Smet PA, Grol RP. Interventions to improve medication compliance in older patients living in the community: a systematic review of the literature. Drugs & Aging 2003 20 (3):229-40. 6 (Medium)
Winterbottom JB, Smyth RM, Jacoby A, Baker GA. Preconception counselling for women with epilepsy to reduce adverse pregnancy outcome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 3:CD006645. 6 (Medium)
Chivu CM, Tulchinsky TH, Soares-Weiser K, Braunstein R, Brezis M. A systematic review of interventions to increase awareness, knowledge, and folic acid consumption before and during pregnancy. American Journal of Health Promotion 2008 22 (4):237-45. 5 (Medium)
Cole-Lewis H, Kershaw T. Text Messaging as a Tool for Behavior Change in Disease Prevention and Management. Epidemiologic Reviews 2010 32 (1):56-69. 5 (Medium)
De Bleser L, Matteson M, Dobbels F, Russell C, De Geest S. Interventions to improve medication-adherence after transplantation: a systematic review. Transplant International 2009 22 (8):780-97. 5 (Medium)
Maglione MA, Stone EG, Shekelle PG. Mass mailings have little effect on utilization of influenza vaccine among Medicare beneficiaries. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2002 23 (1):43-6. 5 (Medium)
Mollon B, Chong J Jr, Holbrook AM, Sung M, Thabane L, Foster G. Features predicting the success of computerized decision support for prescribing: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2009 9. 5 (Medium)
Parr JM, Kavanagh DJ, Cahill L, Mitchell G, Young RM. Effectiveness of current treatment approaches for benzodiazepine discontinuation: a meta-analysis. Addiction (Abingdon, England) 2009 104 (1):13-24. 5 (Medium)
Polis CB, Schaffer K, Blanchard K, Glasier A, Harper CC, Grimes DA. Advance provision of emergency contraception for pregnancy prevention: a meta-analysis. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2007 110 (6):1379-88. 5 (Medium)
Smith LA, Jones C, Meek S, Webster J. Review: Provider practice and user behavior interventions to improve prompt and effective treatment of malaria: do we know what works? American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2009 80 (3):326-35. 5 (Medium)
Vergouwen AC, Bakker A, Katon WJ, Verheij TJ, Koerselman F. Improving adherence to antidepressants: a systematic review of interventions. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 2003 64 (12):1415-20. 5 (Medium)
Wright J, Emerson A, Stephens M, Lennan E. Hospital inpatient self-administration of medicine programmes: a critical literature review. Pharmacy World & Science 2006 28 (3):140-51. 5 (Medium)
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Nishtala PS, McLachlan A, Bell JS, Chen TF. Psychotropic prescribing in long-term care facilities: impact of medication reviews and educational interventions. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2008 16 (8):621-32. 4 (Medium)
Odegard PS, Capoccia K. Medication taking and diabetes: a systematic review of the literature. The Diabetes Educator 2007 33 (6):1014-29. 4 (Medium)
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Summary Pending
Saini S, Schoenfeld P, Kaulback K, Dubinsky M. Effect of medication dosing frequency on adherence in chronic diseases. American Journal of Managed Care 2009 15 (6):e22-e33. 4 (Medium)
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Summary Pending
Zygmunt A, Olfson M, Boyer CA, Mechanic D. Interventions to improve medication adherence in schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2002 159 (10):1653-64. 4 (Medium)
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Easthall C, Song F, Bhattacharya D. A meta-analysis of cognitive-based behaviour change techniques as interventions to improve medication adherence. Bmj open 2013 3 (8):2749. Summary Pending
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Fuangchan A, Dhippayom T, Kongkaew C. Intervention to promote patients' adherence to antimalarial medication: a systematic review. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 2014 90 (1):43770. Summary Pending
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Halpern V, Lopez LM, Grimes DA, Stockton LL, Gallo MF. Strategies to improve adherence and acceptability of hormonal methods of contraception. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013 10:CD004317. Summary Pending
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Harun A, Harrison JD, Young JM. Interventions to improve patient participation in the treatment process for culturally and linguistically diverse people with cancer: a systematic review. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology 2013 9 (2):99-109. Summary Pending
Hiligsmann M, Salas M, Hughes DA, Manias E, Gwadry-Sridhar FH, Linck P, Cowell W. Interventions to improve osteoporosis medication adherence and persistence: a systematic review and literature appraisal by the ISPOR Medication Adherence & Persistence Special Interest Group. Osteoporosis International 2013 24 (12):2907-2918. Summary Pending
Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr GJ, Sakala C. Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012 10:CD003766. Summary Pending
Laba TL, Bleasel J, Brien JA, Cass A, Howard K, Peiris D, Redfern J, Salam A, Usherwood T, Jan S. Strategies to improve adherence to medications for cardiovascular diseases in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations: a systematic review. International Journal of Cardiology 2013 167 (6):2430-2440. Summary Pending
Macdonald L, Cairns G, Angus K, de AM. Promotional communications for influenza vaccination: a systematic review. Journal of Health Communication 2013 18 (12):1523-1549. Summary Pending
Marcano Belisario JS, Huckvale K, Greenfield G, Car J, Gunn LH. Smartphone and tablet self management apps for asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013 11:CD010013. Summary Pending
Mathes T, Antoine SL, Pieper D, Eikermann M. Adherence enhancing interventions for oral anticancer agents: a systematic review. Cancer Treatment Reviews 2014 40 (1):102-108. Summary Pending
Mathes T, Pieper D, Antoine SL, Eikermann M. Adherence-enhancing interventions for highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients - a systematic review. HIV Medicine 2013 14 (10):583-595. Summary Pending
McIntosh B, Yu C, Lal A, Chelak K, Cameron C, Singh SR, Dahl M. Efficacy of self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus managed without insulin: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Medicine : A Peer-reviewed, Independent, Open-access Journal 2010 4 (2):e102-113. Summary Pending
Moullec G, Gour-Provencal G, Bacon SL, Campbell TS, Lavoie KL. Efficacy of interventions to improve adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in adult asthmatics: impact of using components of the chronic care model. Respiratory Medicine 2012 106 (9):1211-1225. Summary Pending
Nglazi MD, Bekker LG, Wood R, Hussey GD, Wiysonge CS. Mobile phone text messaging for promoting adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment: a systematic review. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13 (566). Summary Pending
Smith SM, Soubhi H, Fortin M, Hudon C, O'Dowd T. Managing patients with multimorbidity: systematic review of interventions in primary care and community settings. BMJ 2012 345:e5205. Summary Pending
Stead LF, Lancaster T. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012 10:CD008286. Summary Pending
Stellefson M, Chaney B, Barry AE, Chavarria E, Tennant B, Walsh-Childers K, Sriram PS, Zagora J. Web 2.0 chronic disease self-management for older adults: a systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2013 15 (2):e35. Summary Pending
Thompson L, McCabe R. The effect of clinician-patient alliance and communication on treatment adherence in mental health care: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:87. Summary Pending
Tudor CL, van Velthoven MH, Brusamento S, Elmoniry H, Car J, Majeed A, Tugwell P, Welch V, Marusic A, Atun R. Integrating prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs to improve uptake: a systematic review. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] 2012 7 (4):e35268. Summary Pending
van den Berg N, Schumann M, Kraft K, Hoffmann W. Telemedicine and telecare for older patients--a systematic review. Maturitas 2012 73 (2):94-114. Summary Pending
van-Velthoven MH, Tudor CL, Gentry S, Car J. Telephone delivered interventions for preventing HIV infection in HIV-negative persons. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013 5:CD009190. Summary Pending
Waterman H, Evans JR, Gray TA, Henson D, Harper R. Interventions for improving adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013 4:CD006132. Summary Pending
Windmill J, Fisher E, Eccleston C, Derry S, Stannard C, Knaggs R, Moore RA. Interventions for the reduction of prescribed opioid use in chronic non-cancer pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013 9:CD010323. Summary Pending