Lung cancer is the second-most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Canada. Rearrangement of the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) gene drives the development of about 5% of non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Inhibitors of ALK can effectively delay progression of these malignancies and are the treatment of choice in the first-line and subsequent line settings. This drug class is expanding and new products are poised to enter the market. Reviews of the comparative clinical and cost-effectiveness of ALK inhibitors, and of guidelines pertaining to their use, were requested by Canadian decision-makers in the oncology field in order to inform decisions on optimal funding of these drugs.