What is the clinical effectiveness of pharmacist-led tobacco smoking cessation interventions?
What is the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist-led tobacco smoking cessation interventions versus self-directed smoking cessation interventions?
Three systematic reviews were identified regarding the clinical effectiveness of pharmacist-led interventions for tobacco smoking cessation. One systematic review was identified on the cost-effectiveness of pharmacist-led smoking cessation interventions. The overall quality of evidence was low, and high heterogeneity existed between the included studies, making it difficult to determine the overall effectiveness of these interventions. Very low- to moderate-quality evidence from three systematic reviews suggested that pharmacist-led smoking cessation interventions may lead to higher rates or no difference in rates of smoking cessation, as compared to usual care or no intervention, although there was a high degree of uncertainty in these findings. No other clinical effectiveness outcomes, including adverse events, were reported.Evidence of unknown quality from one very low-quality systematic review suggested that pharmacist-led smoking cessation interventions were cost-effective in Europe. Given the limited availability and low quality of evidence, the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pharmacist-led interventions for smoking cessation remain uncertain.