- What is the clinical effectiveness of probiotics (with or without concurrent antibiotics) for preventing and treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the pediatric population?
- What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of probiotics (with or without concurrent antibiotics) for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the pediatric population?
Evidence of limited quality from nine systematic reviews suggested favourable effects of probiotics on antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) relative to placebo, no additional treatment, or other non-probiotic treatment comparators. However, clinical evidence regarding the conditions under which probiotics were effective (e.g., specific dosing regimens, other outcomes, and indications) was sparse. Two evidence-based guidelines recommended the use of probiotics for the treatment of AAD and one guideline recommended probiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.