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Financial Intervention: Financial


Any change in reimbursement, incentive payment or penalty of healthcare professional, organisation or patient.


Three high quality reviews (Austvoll-Dahlgren, Gosden, Sturm) were identified. In one review (Sturm), provider grant/allowance was found to be generally effective for improving appropriate use outcomes. Two reviews (Austvoll-Dahlgren, Gosden) had an insufficient number of studies to draw any conclusions about the effectiveness of financial interventions.

Summary of Overall Findings from Reviews

6 reviews that evaluated the effectiveness of financial interventions were identified. Of these, 1/1 high quality/key reviews with a sufficient number of studies to draw conclusions found this intervention to be generally effective.

Summary of Findings Related to Prescribing

1/1 high quality/key reviews with a sufficient number of studies to draw conclusions found this intervention to be generally effective for improving prescribing outcomes.

Reviews listed as "Summary Pending" will be analyzed, summarized and reported at a later date.

The findings will then be incorporated in the overall evidence summaries of the interventions they address.

Reviews Addressing This Intervention Quality Assessment Tool:
AMSTAR Score (of 11 points)
Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Aaserud M, Vist G, Ramsay C, Oxman AD, Sturm H, Kosters JP, Vernby A. Pharmaceutical policies: effects of cap and co-payment on rational drug use. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 1:CD007017. 10 (High)
Sturm H, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Aaserud M, Oxman AD, Ramsay C, Vernby A, Kosters JP. Pharmaceutical policies: effects of financial incentives for prescribers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 3:CD006731. 9 (High)
Gosden T, Forland F, Kristiansen IS, Sutton M, Leese B, Giuffrida A, Sergison M, Pedersen L. Capitation, salary, fee-for-service and mixed systems of payment: effects on the behaviour of primary care physicians. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000 3:CD002215. 8 (High)
Viswanathan M, Golin CE, Jones CD, Ashok M, Blalock SJ, Wines RC, Coker-Schwimmer EJ, Rosen DL, Sista P, Lohr KN. Interventions to improve adherence to self-administered medications for chronic diseases in the United States: a systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012 157 (11):785-795. 8
Summary Pending
Comino EJ, Davies GP, Krastev Y, Haas M, Christl B, Furler J, Raymont A, Harris MF. A systematic review of interventions to enhance access to best practice primary health care for chronic disease management, prevention and episodic care. BMC Health Services Research 2012 12:415. 6
Summary Pending
Houle SK, McAlister FA, Jackevicius CA, Chuck AW, Tsuyuki RT. Does performance-based remuneration for individual health care practitioners affect patient care?: a systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012 157 (12):889-899. 6
Summary Pending
Hamilton FL, Greaves F, Majeed A, Millett C. Effectiveness of providing financial incentives to healthcare professionals for smoking cessation activities: systematic review. Tobacco Control 2013 22 (1):8. 5
Summary Pending
Lexchin J, Grootendorst P. Effects of prescription drug user fees on drug and health services use and on health status in vulnerable populations: a systematic review of the evidence. International Journal of Health Services 2004 34 (1):101-22. 4 (Medium)
Morgan SG, Hanley G, Greyson D. Comparison of tiered formularies and reference pricing policies: a systematic review. Open Medicine 2009 3 (3):131-9. 4 (Medium)
Sabatino SA, Habarta N, Baron RC, Coates RJ, Rimer BK, Kerner J, Coughlin SS, Kalra GP, Chattopadhyay S, Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Interventions to increase recommendation and delivery of screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers by healthcare providers systematic reviews of provider assessment and feedback and provider incentives. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2008 35 (1 Suppl):S67-S74. 4 (Medium)
Pimentel CB, Lapane KL, Briesacher BA. Medicare part D and long-term care: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Drugs & Aging 2013 30 (9):701-720. Summary Pending