This report identified limited quality evidence to evaluate the clinical efficacy of vein illumination devices for adult patients in acute or long-term care. Evidence from one randomized controlled pilot trial with significant methodological limitations found no difference in outcomes of time and attempts required for vascular access using a vein illumination device as compared to a standard vascular access protocol in a population of elderly acute care patients. This study did identify a significantly lower frequency of hematoma complications as well as less anxiety and depression in the vein illumination device treatment group at a time point following venous access. Further high-quality research is required to make definitive conclusions regarding the clinical efficacy and safety of vein illumination devices in this population. No relevant cost-effective evidence or evidence-based guidelines were identified.