Intranasal glucagon was equally effective compared with glucagon given by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection to treat experimentally insulin-induced hypoglycemia in both adults and children with type 1 diabetes.
The overall rates of adverse events were similar between groups treated with intranasal glucagon or intramuscular or subcutaneous glucagon. Nausea and vomiting were more frequent in the groups treated with intramuscular or subcutaneous glucagon, whereas eye and nose symptoms occurred more frequently in the intranasal glucagon group.
There was no evidence identified that compared the clinical effectiveness of intranasal glucagon with placebo or no treatment in people treated with insulin who received treatment for hypoglycemia.
No evidence was found about the cost-effectiveness of intranasal glucagon and no evidence-based guidelines were found about the use of intranasal glucagon for the treatment of hypoglycemia in people who receive treatment with insulin.