What is the cost-effectiveness of rapid and simultaneous tuberculosis and antibiotic susceptibility testing for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis or rifampicin resistance?
The evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of the Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and resistance to rifampicin (Xpert MTB/RIF) test compared with smear microscopy in diagnosing tuberculosis is summarized in this report. Results from the included 6 studies showed that Xpert MTB/RIF testing is a cost-effective option compared with sputum smear microscopy. However, the generalizability of the results to the Canadian setting are unclear because of the clinical data source populations, willingness-to-pay thresholds, and assumptions used in the analyses. There is a lack of evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of Xpert MTB/RIF testing compared with mycobacterial cultures or culture-based susceptibility testing.